Over 80 international scientists gathered for the 1st International Conference on Human & Translational Immunology held in Rhodes, Greece, on 16–21 September 2016. Organized under the auspices of Aegean Conferences, the meeting aimed to explore and debate advances in understanding of the immune system, with each session led by experts in the field. Such increases in knowledge of the immune system have led to several major medical breakthroughs over the past decade, including anti-cytokine biologics, T cell immunotherapy and checkpoint-blockade therapy. Technological advances in gene manipulation and the ability to perform and analyze at unprecedented depth ‘-omics’ studies have brought human immunology to a new era of discovery. Topics discussed during the conference ranged from immune-system-mediated diseases and immunity to ‘-omics’ approaches to understand of the human immune system. Below, only some presentations are highlighted briefly.